Still need help choosing a viscometer? There are many reasons why one viscometer type is more appropriate or better suited than another. Because of these many reasons, we recommend you speak with one of our experienced staff members to assist you. You can however, use our viscometer selector to help point you in the right direction. The viscometer selector requires a target viscosity as input and outputs a list of viscometer types and sizes that are capable of measuring your target fluid.
CANNON Instrument Company provides expanded uncertainty data with all of our calibrated viscometers. This is the universally accepted statistic when dealing with calibration data. In order to maintain A2LA accreditation, we are required to determine and specify the expanded uncertainty for all our calibration data. ISO publications define expanded uncertainty as "quantity defining the interval about the result of a measurement within which the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurement may be expected to lie with a high level of confidence."
Expanded uncertainty is a more comprehensive and meaningful term than "precision" because it incorporates all variables in the measurement process. When comparing the accuracy of viscometers it is essential that the expanded uncertainty be specified. CANNON Instrument Company also provides uncertainty data with every bottle of our certified viscosity standards.
CANNON offers many types of glass capillary viscometers that are not listed in our catalog. Examples include Atlantic, Cannon Master and Ubbelohde Master, Cannon-Ubbelohde Filter-Stick Dilution, Fitzsimons, Lantz-Zeitfuchs, Methylcellulose, SIL, and other viscometers. We can also manufacture glass capillary viscometers with customer-specified constants. Viscometers with special constants, added temps, and before/after data are available by special order at an additional cost.
Glass Capillary Viscometers Types & Applications
The Cannon-Fenske Routine viscometer is a rugged and inexpensive viscometer that works well if the liquid to be measured is transparent or translucent. In general, if the meniscus (the curvature at the top of the liquid column) can be readily observed through a column of liquid 3-mm in diameter, the Cannon-Fenske Routine viscometer and other transparent-type viscometers (such as the Zeitfuchs Transparent and BS/U-Tube viscometers) can be used.
The Ubbelohde viscometer and other suspended level viscometers are also used to measure transparent liquids. Unlike the Cannon-Fenske Routine viscometer, suspended level viscometers possess the same viscometer constant at all temperatures. This property is advantageous when measurements are to be made at a number of different temperatures. CANNON has improved the design of the Ubbelohde viscometer to make a more rugged instrument called the Cannon-Ubbelohde viscometer. Other suspended level viscometers in this catalog include the BS/IP/SL, BS/IP/SL(S), and BS/IP/MSL viscometers.
Reverse Flow Viscometers
Special reverse flow viscometers have been designed for testing opaque liquids. Reverse flow viscometers wet the timing section of the viscometer capillary only during the actual measurement. The Cannon-Fenske Opaque, Zeitfuchs Cross-Arm, and BS/IP/RF U-Tube viscometers are all reverse flow types. Reverse flow viscometers must be cleaned, dried, and refilled before a repeat measurement can be made. In contrast, other viscometer types commonly used to measure transparent liquids allow the same sample to be repeatedly drawn up into the capillary, permitting multiple measurements for verification.
Small Volume Viscometers
In some situations, such as in a clinical laboratory, the amount of liquid available for measurement is quite small. Several viscometers have been designed which require one milliliter or less of liquid. These are referred to as semi-micro or micro viscometers. The Cannon-Manning Semi-Micro is a U-tube viscometer that has been modified to measure the kinematic viscosity of samples as small as 1.0 mL. The Cannon-Ubbelohde Semi-Micro viscometer is a modification of the standard size Cannon-Ubbelohde viscometer requiring a sample volume of only one milliliter. The Cannon-Manning Semi-Micro Extra Low Change viscometer will permit kinematic viscosity determination with as little as 0.5 milliliters of sample.
Estimates of the molecular size and shape of large polymer molecules can be obtained from kinematic viscosity measurements of dilute solutions of the polymers. The Cannon-Ubbelohde Dilution viscometer has an extra-large reservoir which allows polymer solutions to be diluted several times. Dilute polymer solutions frequently appear to exhibit changes in kinematic viscosity when the shear rate is changed. By using the Cannon-Ubbelohde Four-Bulb Shear Dilution viscometer, measurements can be made at four different shear rates.
In most glass capillary viscometers, the samples flow under gravity. When liquids are too viscous to flow readily under gravity, vacuum viscometers may be used to measure viscosity (in mPa•s or cP). In these instruments a vacuum is applied to one end of the viscometer to pull the liquid through the capillary into the timing bulb(s). CANNON offers several types of vacuum viscometers, including the Cannon-Manning Vacuum, the Asphalt Institute Vacuum, and the Modified Koppers Vacuum. Like the Cannon-Fenske Opaque viscometer, these are all “reverse flow” viscometers. Vacuum viscometers require a vacuum that is very accurately controlled. The CANNON DVR-1000 or DVR-1500 Digital Vacuum Regulator is an ideal instrument for maintaining constant vacuum.